Stroke + mtDNA
|TAT (TURNAROUND TIME)||2 - 4 weeks|
|CPT CODE||81405 x2, 81408, 81460, 81465, 81479|
|RECOMMENDED MNG KITS||
A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. It is said to be the third leading cause of death in the United States. At least 80% of stroke is ischemic, resulting from an obstruction of blood flow, whereas 15–20% is due to bleeding into the brain, i.e. intracerebral hemorrhage. Ischaemic stroke itself should be thought of as a syndrome rather than a specific disease and can be caused by many different pathologies. The major ones are large-artery disease, small-vessel disease and cardioembolism.
Many single-gene disorders can result in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and these tend to cause specific stroke subtypes. The most common monogenic form of cerebral small-vessel disease is CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy). CADASIL is characterized by mid-adult onset of recurrent ischemic stroke, cognitive decline progressing to dementia, a history of migraine with aura, mood disturbance, apathy, and diffuse white matter lesions and subcortical infarcts on neuroimaging. More than 95% of individuals with CADASIL have pathogenic variants in NOTCH3, the only gene known to cause CADASIL. Other single-gene disorders include large artery diseases like dyslipidemias, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, neurofibromatosis type 1.
|Acceptable Sample Types||
|Sample Preparation:||(1) Blood specimens: Draw blood in an EDTA tube. Preferred volume: 4 milliliters (adults and pediatrics), Minimum volume: 2 milliliters; (2) DNA extracted from leukocytes, muscle, or fibroblasts: Preferred quantity: 4 micrograms, Minimum quantity: 3 micrograms (Genomic DNA should be eluted in sterile Dnase/Rnase free water or TE. The A260:A280 ratio should be 1.8-2.0.); (3) 2 T-25 flasks of fibroblasts; (4) 50-75 milligrams muscle snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and maintained at -80°Celsius or below. (5) Skin biopsy (Fibroblasts will be cultured from skin specimen for genetic testing): Skin biopsy may be taken from the inner forearm with a sterile skin punch (2-5 millimeters) or at incision site of muscle biopsy. Site is sterilized with alcohol swabs only (other reagents will inhibit cell isolation/growth). Biopsy site may be anaesthetized with 2% lidocaine with epinephrine. Depth of punch is 2mm. Transfer skin biopsy into 15 milliliter conical tube filled with sterile culture media. (6) Buccal cells.|
|Shipping Condition:||MNG SmartKits are available for free shipping of specimens. Please see our website for details. If you are not using a MNG SmartKit: (1) Blood specimens should be shipped in a secure container at room temperature. (2) Extracted DNA should be shipped priority overnight at ambient temperature. (3) T-25 flasks containing fibroblasts should be shipped in an insulated container at room temperature. Flasks should be completely filled with media and cells should be ~90% confluent. Fibroblast samples must be certified free from Mycoplasma. MNG is able to perform this service for a small charge (See TC05). (4) Muscle samples should be shipped frozen in an insulated container with 5-7 lbs dry ice. (5) Buccal cells should be shipped in a secure container at room temperature. (6) Skin Biopsy: Conical containing the skin specimen should be shipped in a secure container with cold pack (DO NOT FREEZE). All samples should be shipped overnight at the proper temperature for receipt by our lab Monday thru Saturday (No Sunday or holiday deliveries accepted).|