Dopamine Metabolism Deficiency
|TAT (TURNAROUND TIME)||2 - 4 weeks|
|RECOMMENDED MNG KITS||
Neurotransmitter disorders are a heterogeneous group of inherited neurometabolic disorders caused by defects in the synthesis, degradation and transport of neurotransmitters including monoamines, glycine, and gamma-amino butyric acid. Monoamines neurotransmitters consist of catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine) and serotonin. Dopamine acts as neuromodulator in the brain and peripherally as an autocrine/paracrine hormone. Dopamine exerts its major role in the nervous system where is involved in in the control of locomotion, mood and behavior, memory and cognition. The precursor of all catecholamines is L-tyrosine which can be derived from the diet or from the hydroxylation of L-phenylalanine. Defects in the dopamine biosynthetic pathway result in complex, predominantly extrapyramidal neurological disorders.
Deficiencies are characterized by lack of sympathetic noradrenergic function but normal parasympathetic and sympathetic cholinergic function. Affected individuals exhibit profound deficits in autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function that predispose to orthostatic hypotension. The combination of ptosis of the eyelids together with hypotension, is suggestive of disease. In the perinatal period, DBH deficiency has been complicated by vomiting, dehydration, hypotension, hypothermia, and hypoglycemia requiring repeated hospitalization. By early adulthood, individuals have profound orthostatic hypotension, greatly reduced exercise tolerance, ptosis of the eyelids, and nasal stuffiness. Presyncopal symptoms include dizziness, blurred vision, dyspnea, nuchal discomfort, and chest pain.
|Acceptable Sample Types||
|Sample Preparation:||(1) Blood specimens: Draw blood in an EDTA tube. Preferred volume: 4 milliliters (adults and pediatrics), Minimum volume: 2 milliliters; (2) DNA extracted from leukocytes, muscle, or fibroblasts: Preferred quantity: 4 micrograms, Minimum quantity: 3 micrograms (Genomic DNA should be eluted in sterile Dnase/Rnase free water or TE. The A260:A280 ratio should be 1.8-2.0.); (3) 2 T-25 flasks of fibroblasts; (4) 50-75 milligrams muscle snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and maintained at -80°Celsius or below. (5) Skin biopsy (Fibroblasts will be cultured from skin specimen for genetic testing): Skin biopsy may be taken from the inner forearm with a sterile skin punch (2-5 millimeters) or at incision site of muscle biopsy. Site is sterilized with alcohol swabs only (other reagents will inhibit cell isolation/growth). Biopsy site may be anaesthetized with 2% lidocaine with epinephrine. Depth of punch is 2mm. Transfer skin biopsy into 15 milliliter conical tube filled with sterile culture media. (6) Buccal cells.|
|Shipping Condition:||MNG SmartKits are available for free shipping of specimens. Please see our website for details. If you are not using a MNG SmartKit: (1) Blood specimens should be shipped in a secure container at room temperature. (2) Extracted DNA should be shipped priority overnight at ambient temperature. (3) T-25 flasks containing fibroblasts should be shipped in an insulated container at room temperature. Flasks should be completely filled with media and cells should be ~90% confluent. Fibroblast samples must be certified free from Mycoplasma. MNG is able to perform this service for a small charge (See TC05). (4) Muscle samples should be shipped frozen in an insulated container with 5-7 lbs dry ice. (5) Buccal cells should be shipped in a secure container at room temperature. (6) Skin Biopsy: Conical containing the skin specimen should be shipped in a secure container with cold pack (DO NOT FREEZE). All samples should be shipped overnight at the proper temperature for receipt by our lab Monday thru Saturday (No Sunday or holiday deliveries accepted).|