Comprehensive Intellectual Disability/Autism + mtDNA
|TAT (TURNAROUND TIME)||2 - 4 weeks|
|CPT CODE||81470, 81471, 81302, 81304, 81404, 81405, 81406 x2|
|RECOMMENDED MNG KITS||
Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired cognitive functions, significant below-average intellectual ability, and functional limitations in adaptive behavior with onset prior to the age of 18 years. ID is affecting 1-3% of the general population, and 2-3% of Americans are diagnosed with ID.
Causes of ID can be contributed by both environmental (non-syndromic) and genetic factors (syndromic). Environmental factors include intoxication during pregnancy, viral infections, premature birth, complications during birth, malnutrition, childhood diseases, and metabolic disorders which are responsible for damage of the nervous system.
It is estimated that up to 50% of moderate-severe cases have genetic causes including chromosomal abnormalities and monogenic defects. Chromosomal abnormalities are: aneuploidies, duplications and submicroscopic deletions. Of the autosomal trisomies, trisomy 21 is the most common chromosome abnormality associated with ID. Approximately 10% of syndromic cases are due to X-linked intellectual disability disorders (XLID). More than 100 XLID syndromes have been described in the literature to date. Fragile X is the most common XLID syndrome (~1 in 4000 males) while other syndromes can be quite rare with only a few patients reported in the literature. Males can have moderate to severe intellectual disability depending on the diagnosed syndrome. Carrier females can also be affected, but typically have milder clinical symptoms.
|Acceptable Sample Types||
|Sample Preparation:||(1) Blood specimens: Draw blood in an EDTA tube. Preferred volume: 4 milliliters (adults and pediatrics), Minimum volume: 2 milliliters; (2) DNA extracted from leukocytes, muscle, or fibroblasts: Preferred quantity: 4 micrograms, Minimum quantity: 3 micrograms (Genomic DNA should be eluted in sterile Dnase/Rnase free water or TE. The A260:A280 ratio should be 1.8-2.0.); (3) 2 T-25 flasks of fibroblasts; (4) 50-75 milligrams muscle snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and maintained at -80°Celsius or below. (5) Skin biopsy (Fibroblasts will be cultured from skin specimen for genetic testing): Skin biopsy may be taken from the inner forearm with a sterile skin punch (2-5 millimeters) or at incision site of muscle biopsy. Site is sterilized with alcohol swabs only (other reagents will inhibit cell isolation/growth). Biopsy site may be anaesthetized with 2% lidocaine with epinephrine. Depth of punch is 2mm. Transfer skin biopsy into 15 milliliter conical tube filled with sterile culture media. (6) Buccal cells.|
|Shipping Condition:||MNG SmartKits are available for free shipping of specimens. Please see our website for details. If you are not using a MNG SmartKit: (1) Blood specimens should be shipped in a secure container at room temperature. (2) Extracted DNA should be shipped priority overnight at ambient temperature. (3) T-25 flasks containing fibroblasts should be shipped in an insulated container at room temperature. Flasks should be completely filled with media and cells should be ~90% confluent. Fibroblast samples must be certified free from Mycoplasma. MNG is able to perform this service for a small charge (See TC05). (4) Muscle samples should be shipped frozen in an insulated container with 5-7 lbs dry ice. (5) Buccal cells should be shipped in a secure container at room temperature. (6) Skin Biopsy: Conical containing the skin specimen should be shipped in a secure container with cold pack (DO NOT FREEZE). All samples should be shipped overnight at the proper temperature for receipt by our lab Monday thru Saturday (No Sunday or holiday deliveries accepted).|