Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
|TAT (TURNAROUND TIME)||2 - 4 weeks|
|CPT CODE||81404, 81405, 81406, 81479|
|RECOMMENDED MNG KITS||
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease that affects motor neurons, which are specialized nerve cells that control muscle movement. These nerve cells are found in the spinal cord and the brain. In ALS, motor neurons die (atrophy) over time, leading to muscle weakness, a loss of muscle mass, and an inability to control movement.
There are many different types of ALS; these types are distinguished by their signs and symptoms and their genetic cause or lack of clear genetic association. About 90-95% of ALS cases are sporadic, which means it occurs in people with no family history. People with sporadic ALS usually first develop features of the condition in their late fifties or early sixties. A small proportion of affected individuals, estimated at 1%, have a family history of ALS or a related condition called frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which is a progressive brain disorder that affects personality, behavior, and language. The signs and symptoms of familial ALS typically first appear in one\'s late forties or early fifties. Rarely, people with familial ALS develop symptoms in childhood or their teenage years. These individuals have a rare form of the disorder known as juvenile ALS.
The mean age of onset is 56 years in individuals with no known family history and 46 years in individuals with more than one affected family member. Average disease duration is about 3 years, but it can vary significantly. Death usually results from compromise of the respiratory muscles. The diagnosis of ALS is based on clinical features, electro-diagnostic testing, and exclusion of other health conditions with related symptoms. Molecular genetic testing plays a prominent role in diagnosis of the genetic subtype and genetic counseling. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner. Genetic counseling and risk assessment depend on accurate determination of the specific genetic diagnosis.
|Acceptable Sample Types||
|Sample Preparation:||(1) Blood specimens: Draw blood in an EDTA tube. Preferred volume: 4 milliliters (adults and pediatrics), Minimum volume: 2 milliliters; (2) DNA extracted from leukocytes, muscle, or fibroblasts: Preferred quantity: 4 micrograms, Minimum quantity: 3 micrograms (Genomic DNA should be eluted in sterile Dnase/Rnase free water or TE. The A260:A280 ratio should be 1.8-2.0.); (3) 2 T-25 flasks of fibroblasts; (4) 50-75 milligrams muscle snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and maintained at -80°Celsius or below. (5) Skin biopsy (Fibroblasts will be cultured from skin specimen for genetic testing): Skin biopsy may be taken from the inner forearm with a sterile skin punch (2-5 millimeters) or at incision site of muscle biopsy. Site is sterilized with alcohol swabs only (other reagents will inhibit cell isolation/growth). Biopsy site may be anaesthetized with 2% lidocaine with epinephrine. Depth of punch is 2mm. Transfer skin biopsy into 15 milliliter conical tube filled with sterile culture media. (6) Buccal cells.|
|Shipping Condition:||MNG SmartKits are available for free shipping of specimens. Please see our website for details. If you are not using a MNG SmartKit: (1) Blood specimens should be shipped in a secure container at room temperature. (2) Extracted DNA should be shipped priority overnight at ambient temperature. (3) T-25 flasks containing fibroblasts should be shipped in an insulated container at room temperature. Flasks should be completely filled with media and cells should be ~90% confluent. Fibroblast samples must be certified free from Mycoplasma. MNG is able to perform this service for a small charge (See TC05). (4) Muscle samples should be shipped frozen in an insulated container with 5-7 lbs dry ice. (5) Buccal cells should be shipped in a secure container at room temperature. (6) Skin Biopsy: Conical containing the skin specimen should be shipped in a secure container with cold pack (DO NOT FREEZE). All samples should be shipped overnight at the proper temperature for receipt by our lab Monday thru Saturday (No Sunday or holiday deliveries accepted).|